Third, a moral principle is a categorical imperative that is universalizable; that is, it must be applicable for everyone who is in the same moral situation.
This does not mean that consequences of acts are not relevant for assessing those acts. Imagine that the neighbour is desperate to find someone to exercise his canine companion, while your friends are fully capable of enjoying themselves without you.
Morality is a means to some other end; it is in no way an end in itself. He posited that someone who has experienced both forms of pleasure would naturally feel inclined to choose the higher pleasures.
As such, the philosophy is said to derive from the classical concept of hedonism, which values the pursuit of pleasure and avoidance of pain. But consequences are not what make the act right, as is the case with utilitarianism. It is centred around the concept of happiness, and seeks to promote it.
Consequences help us find what is our duty, they are not what make something our duty. Bentham developed this principle throughout a number of writings, including his most significant work of moral philosophy, An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation Naturally, it follows from this that he also felt that we should treat unhappiness as something consisting of pain.
In theory and in practice, Utilitarianism has continued to be influential, with the work of Bentham and Mill proving to be of the greatest importance and interest. This is known as the greatest happiness principle.
Nevertheless, justified or unjustified, deontological ethics imply that humans are ends in themselves with intrinsic value. To him, anything that gave rise to happiness — be it drugs or reading — was fundamentally good.
Notable among the Utilitarians to follow Bentham, the philosopher and economist John Stuart Mill made considerable contributions to Utilitarian philosophy, beginning with his succinct apologia for the doctrine in Utilitarianism This view on happiness has led his particular brand of utilitarianism to be seen as a hedonistic theory.
Suffice it to say that the majority of moral philosophers and theologians have found it defective. His ideas here are, really, quite simple. The rightness or wrongness of an act or rule is, at least in part, a matter of the intrinsic moral features of that kind of act or rule.
Rather, at best, consequences help us determine which action is more in keeping with what is already our duty. The idea here is that all people seek happiness, and that it is the ultimate goal of all human beings to be happy. Do you like what you are seeing?
While Bentham modified this concept over time, critics acknowledge that its essence remains intact throughout his work. For this and other reasons, many thinkers have advocated a second type of moral theory, deontological ethics.
I am focusing here on the nature of utilitarianism and am not considering its weaknesses. For example, utilitarianism can be used to justify punishing an innocent man or enslaving a small group of people if such acts produce a maximization of consequences.
This is a fairly straightforward exploration of the most common forms of utilitarianism. But these acts are clearly immoral regardless of how fruitful they might be for the greatest number. As we will see in Part Two, this notion is very difficult to justify if one abandons the theological doctrine of man being made in the image of God.
Furthermore, Bentham did not distinguish between different forms of pleasure. In sum, according to utilitarianism, morality is a matter of the nonmoral good produced that results from moral actions and rules, and moral duty is instrumental, not intrinsic.
Your partnership is essential. Deontological ethics is in keeping with Scripture, natural moral law, and intuitions from common sense. Christian Research Institute Our Mission: But basically, a utilitarian approach to morality implies that no moral act e.
An understanding of this topic could prove useful to IB philosophy students taking ethics as one of their chosen options. In this work, Bentham also sought to specifically record the sources of pleasure and pain, as well as to create a scale upon which the relative effects of individual acts in producing happiness or misery could be examined.
For example, a doctor may have a duty to benefit a patient, and he or she may need to know what medical consequences would result from various treatments in order to determine what would and would not benefit the patient.Definition of Utilitarianism Utilitarianism is an ethical theory developed in the modern period by Jeremy Bentham () and John Stuart Mill () to promote fairness in British legislation during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries when the interests of the upper classes tended to prevail and the sufferings of the lower classes /5(20).
Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that looks at the concept of `utility`, or the usefulness of actions. Two of the most famous Utilitarians were Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill; Bentham was the first to introduce the theory, and his views were more similar to that of Act Utilitarianism.
Deontological Ethics There are two major ethics theories that attempt to specify and justify moral rules and principles: utilitarianism and deontological ethics.
Utilitarianism (also called consequentialism) is a moral theory developed and refined in the modern world in the writings of Jeremy Bentham () and John Stuart Mill ().
In theory and in practice, Utilitarianism has continued to be influential, with the work of Bentham and Mill proving to be of the greatest importance and interest. Mar 24, · Utilitarianism is a moral theory generally considered to have been founded by Jeremy Bentham, a 19th century English philosopher and social reformer.
It is centred around the concept of happiness, and seeks to promote it. Utilitarianism Essay.
Utilitarianism is a normative ethics theory that holds that the proper course of action is one that maximizes utility or happiness and the reduction of suffering.Download