Psychological adjustment following mastectomy due to breast cancer nursing essay

Historical Reflections For almost a century, the Halsted radical mastectomy was the standard surgical treatment for breast cancer. Facing many months of treatment leads to disruption in social activities childcare, work, caregiving and decreases the ability to plan and multitask.

Now, for the majority of women, it is usually managed with only minimal removal of breast tissue and sampling of a few axillary nodes.

This paper discusses the importance of identifying the psychological and social concerns of breast cancer patients in the medical setting, and assisting them in obtaining appropriate psychosocial services. The amount of missing tissue varies with each mastectomy depending on the width, size and location of the tumour and its proximity to the armpit from which the lymph nodes are removed.

Women should understand early on that a mastectomy will affect them mentally almost as much as it will physically and that they should begin exploring therapies to help them cope with the emotional effects of a mastectomy even before their breast cancer surgery.

Further refinements in surgical staging, including the sentinel lymph node biopsy, have now begun to limit the extent of axillary surgery for women with small tumors and low metastatic potential.

Breast reconstruction surgery for breast cancer is performed to replace skin, breast tissue and the nipple removed during a mastectomy. Breast, as part of the female body is an integral part of her self-worth.

Psychological Effects of Mastectomy

Communication with partner and sharing the concerns and fears can be very helpful in maintaining a healthy, happy sex life after breast cancer. Breast cancer treatments today are likely to cause less physical deformity from surgery than a half-century ago, but are more complex and extend over a longer period of time.

Attempts to restore body image with external prostheses were variably effective, and reconstructive surgery with implants did not become widely available until the last 2 decades of the 20th century.

Although she may take some time to get used to her body, a woman battling breast cancer can learn to love her post-mastectomy body and feel just as womanly and acceptable as she did before breast cancer treatment.

The shared decision-making process may be stressful, and use of decision aids, as discussed in the consensus conference,[19,20] has become more common.

Nowadays there has been a great progress in its early detection and treatment, improving the outcome of the disease. However, during the search for an appropriate treatment option, the woman must also be informed about many other issues.

It is said that mastectomy causes more trauma than the cancer illness itself, hence there is a need to deal with this issue in order to provide psychotherapeutic treatment for these women.

It promotes a sense of wellness for the woman. For the mastectomised woman, the acceptance by her partner is essential as they fear being rejected.

In the past 50 years, breast cancer has been transformed from a disease in which all women were treated with a radical and disfiguring surgical procedure that amputated the breast, removed pectoral muscles, and included an extensive axillary dissection. Immediate reconstruction and autologous tissue flaps, widely used today, did not become widespread until the turn of the 21st century.

Reconstruction was often delayed for several years after initial treatment, requiring a second surgical procedure.

Psychological and social adjustment to mastectomy: a two-year follow-up study.

Another important aspect of this historical time in breast cancer treatment was the stigma associated with a cancer diagnosis, and the lack of support for patients beyond their families as they went through cancer diagnosis and treatment. Even the most psychologically strong individual will be overwhelmed by the number of medical visits, procedures, and waiting times during the initial diagnostic process.

Some women may choose to use a prosthetic breast, an artificial breast that can be worn under a bra to give the appearance of a natural breast.

Psychological and Social Aspects of Breast Cancer

These findings in the late s were gradually disseminated to physicians and patients, and resulted in the beginnings of psychosocial support groups in the early s. Although serious depression is not seen in the majority of breast cancer patients and survivors, many will experience treatment-related distress, fear of recurrence, changes in body image and sexuality, as well as physical toxicities that result from adjuvant therapy.

One issue that is frequently overlooked is the sexuality needs of a woman before and after treatment. Women may have a temporary loss of sexual desire. Breast reconstruction not only improves physical appearance it also has psychological benefits. The trauma of breast cancer surgery has diminished substantially in the past 2 decades, but women are still left with many physical and psychological problems as a result of complex multimodal treatments, including chemotherapy and adjuvant endocrine therapies.

Women receiving this treatment suffered terrible cosmetic deformity, with loss of arm function through resection of the pectoral muscles, high risk for lymphedema as the result of extensive axillary nodal dissection, and significant pain and tightness across the chest wall.

Mastectomy breast removal results in the loss of self-worth which is not observed in the surgical removal of any other tumour in females. This is then followed by the need to organize care with multiple providers surgeon, radiation oncologist, medical oncologist, plastic surgeon and often second opinions to assist in decision-making.

Gradually, treatments became more intensive[11,12] and there was increasing interest in the measurement of quality-of-life outcomes in these clinical trials.

The choices for breast reconstruction are different for all patients. By staying positive and surrounding herself with a good support system, she can undergo a mastectomy with her self — esteem intact.

Management of Breast Cancer in the Abeloff Era: Return to usual physical and social activities was also reportedly diminished in many women.During this same period of time, women with breast cancer have become increasingly involved in treatment decision-making, and have made it clear that they have need for attention to the psychological and social aspects of their care, in addition to the targeted treatment of their tumors.[1].

Psychological Effects of Mastectomy Breast cancer is the most common malignant tumour in women. Nowadays there has been a great progress in its early detection. Psychological Adjustment Following Mastectomy Due To Breast Cancer Nursing Essay The literatures provide sufficient discussion on the psychological impacts after mastectomy.

Due to the altered body image, various psychological concerns are stimulated, impairing the well-being of the patient, and the relationship with the husband may. Psychological and social adjustment to mastectomy: a two-year follow-up study.

By 2 years there wery no significant differences in social adjustment between mastectomy patients and benign breast disease controls; 70% of cancer patients were no longer stressed by mastectomy at 1 year.

Factors predicting poor adjustment to mastectomy were. Psychological Adjustment to Breast Cancer Bruce E. Compas 1 and Linda Luecken Department of Psychology, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont (B.E.C.), and sexual adjustment compared with mastectomy (Moyer, ).

Prospective studies in which symptoms of psychological distress. The Nurse's Role in the Psychosocial Support for Women Diagnosed with Breast Cancer Lucas de Faria Bachelor’s thesis breast-cancer, nursing, psychosocial support.

certain risk factors are more likely to develop breast cancer. Studies have found the following risk facts: age, personal history of breast cancer, family history, certain.

Psychological adjustment following mastectomy due to breast cancer nursing essay
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